米国の電子情報公開法

Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments of 1996

電子情報公開法に対するクリントン大統領のステートメント

米国で1996年10月2日に成立した、政府に情報を電子媒体で提供することを義務づける法律の名称。これは本来、1966年に制定されたFreedom Of Information Act(FOIA/情報公開法)を改定し、従来から実施されていた閲覧室などでの公開に加え、CD-ROMや磁気テープ、フロッピーディスクなどの電子メディアを使って情報提供をする。この法律の成立により政府機関は、国民の要求があってから20日以内に指定された情報を提供することが義務づけられた。すでに国家予算などを含む政府情報をWWWで提供している米国では、電子情報公開法の成立はとくに大きな情報ではなく、目立った報道されないで当然のこととしてとらえられていた。米国の電子情報公開法はSecret CityではAlberto Tsara's Legends to Maps of FreedomがMP3で公開されている。詳細情報はURL(http://www.toysatellite.org/secession/releases/sr004.php)で知ることができる。1966年7月4日にU.S. FOIAとして施行されてから、2003年7月4日で37周年を迎えたFreedom of Information Act(情報の自由法)に付いて「Freedom of Information Act 37th Birthday Report」が公開された。詳細情報はURL(http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB93/)で知ることができる。「UN Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Opinion and Expression」「the OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media」「the OAS Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Expression」は2004年12月7日に、情報公開の原理に基づいて、開放の仮定を確立する情報法へのアクセスを採用し、かつそれらが情報へのアクセスを妨害しないことを保証する秘密法の修正を要求した「情報と秘密法への共同声明(Joint Declaration addressing access to information and secrecy laws)」を発表した。詳細情報はURL(http://www.ifex.org/en/content/view/full/63064/)また、共同声明はURL(http://www.article19.org/docimages/1888.doc)で知ることができる。

[電子情報公開法に対するクリントン大統領(President Bill Clinton/William Jefferson Clinton)のステートメント]
THE WHITE HOUSE
Office of the Press Secretary

For Immediate Release
October 2, 1996
STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT
I am pleased to sign into law today H.R.3802,the 'Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments of 1996.' This bill represents the culmination of several years of leadership by Senator Patrick Leahy to bring this important law up to date.Enacted in 1966,the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) was the first law to establish an effective legal right of access to government information,underscoring the crucial need in a democracy for open access to government information by citizens.In the last 30 years,citizens,scholars, and reporters have used FOIA to obtain vital and valuable government information.Since 1966,the world has changed a great deal.Records are no longer principally maintained in paper format. Now, they are maintained in a variety of technologies,including CD ROM and computer tapes and diskettes,making it easier to put more information on-line.My Administration has launched numerous initiatives to bring more government information to the public.We have established World Wide Web pages,which identify and link information resources throughout the Federal Government.An enormous range of documents and data,including the Federal budget, is now available on-line or in electronic format, making government more accessible than ever.And in the last year, we have declassified unprecedented amounts of national security material, including information on nuclear testing.The legislation I sign today brings FOIA into the information and electronic age by clarifying that it applies to records maintained in electronic format.This law also broadens public access to government information by placing more material on-line and expanding the role of the agency reading room.As the Government actively disseminates more information,I hope hat there will be less need to use FOIA to obtain government information.This legislation not only affirms the importance,but also the challenge of maintaining openness in government.In a period of government downsizing,the numbers of requests continue to rise.In addition, growing numbers of requests are for information that must be reviewed for declassification,or in which there is a proprietary interest or a privacy concern.The result in many agencies is huge backlogs of requests.In this Act, the Congress recognized that with today's imited resources,it is frequently difficult to respond to a FOIA request within the 10 days formerly required in the law.This legislation extends the legal response period to 20 days.More importantly, it recognizes that many FOIA requests are so broad and complex that they cannot possibly be completed even within this longer period, and the time spent processing them only delays other requests.Accordingly, H.R.3802 establishes procedures for an agency to discuss with requesters ways of tailoring large requests to improve responsiveness.This approach explicitly recognizes that FOIA works best when agencies and requesters work together.Our country was founded on democratic principles of openness and accountability, and for 30 years,FOIA has supported these principles.Today, the 'Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments of 1996' reforges an important link between the United States Government and the American people.
WILLIAM J. CLINTONE WHITE HOUSE,
October 2, 1996.