ドイツのハイテク・ビザ

german green card/Green-Card-Debatte in Deutschland/D211


Florian Dchneiderが、自分で質問して自分で答える形式で、ドイツのドイツのIT労働についてnettimeでその実態を公開した。このようなビザは米国が最初に実施し、ドイツが2番目であったが、今後、先進国は同様の行動を取る可能性があることからここに全文を掲載する。nettimeは営利目的でない場合は転載自由ということであるから、ここに全文を掲載する。ただし、データベース管理上問題になる文字は近い文字に変換し、URLはリンクするように設定した。ドイツでコンピュータヴォッヘ(Computer Woche)は、すでに15万人のIT技術者不足であること発表し、今後1年間に誕生すると見込まれる大卒のIT技術者が1万2000人 1万6000人程度であるのに対し、毎年必要とされるIT技術者は2万5000人と試算され、IT技術者不足を補うために、政府が東欧などの出身のIT技術者・学生に与えて優先的に独に呼び寄せ、イニシアティブD211という「グリーンカード」を提供する政策が、まだ字十分ではないことを指摘した。ただし、全世界的なIT技術者不足が訴えられている現状では、日本の現状より、まだましなようにも感じる。ドイツ政府は2001年1月16日に、第2次世界対戦の時に有名になったレッド・バロンのドイツの鷹(戦闘機/メッサーシュミット)のようなITの鷹(IT eagle/der IT-Adler)を発表した。この鷹は2001年3月22日から開催されるCeBITのロゴにも採用される。詳細情報はURL(http://eng.bundesregierung.de/frameset/index.jsp)で知ることができる。米国のDianne Feinstein民主党上院議員は2001年9月27日に、2001年9月11日に米国で発生した同時多発テロに学生が関係していたことから、学生証の電子管理を実現し、外国留学生の電子追跡システムに関する法案を提出することを発表した。いずれこの考えはグリーンカードにも波及することだろう。詳細情報はURL(http://www.senate.gov/%7Efeinstein/releases01/stvisas1.htm)で知ることができる。米国のGAO(General Accounting Office/米国連邦会計監査院)は2002年10月23日に、2002年9月20日に公開されたH-1Bビザの技能レベルについての調査結果「High Skill Training: Grants from H-1B Visa Fees Meet Specific Workforce Needs, but at Varying Skill Levels. GAO-02-881, September 20」を公開した。詳細情報はURL(http://www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-02-881)で知ることができる。米国のGAO(General Accounting Office/米国連邦会計監査院)は2004年9月9日に、米国国務省がバイオメトリックス・ビザのスケジュールを発表し、その内容をレポートにした「Border Security: State Department Rollout of Biometric Visas on Schedule, but Guidance Is Lagging. GAO-04-1001」と、Jacquelyn L.によるバイオメトリックス・ビザの実証レポート「Border Security: Joint, Coordinated Actions by State and DHS Needed to Guide Biometric Visas and Related Programs, by Jacquelyn L. Williams-Bridgers, managing director, international affairs and trade, and Randolph Hite, director, information technology architecture and systems, before the House Committee on Government Reform. GAO-04-1080T」を公開した。詳細情報はURL(http://www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-04-1001)または、URL(http://www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-04-1080T)で知ることができる。

Date: Sun, 11 Jun 2000 09:18:57 +0200
From: florian schneider (fls@kein.org)
To: ''nettime-l@bbs.thing.net'' (nettime-l@bbs.thing.net)
Subject: (nettime) german green card
Sender: owner-nettime-l@bbs.thing.net

hi,

this piece below i found on the webserver of then german government. it is referring to a public debate about the german version of a so called ''green card''. at the occassion of the opening of this years cebit the german cancellor schroeder had announced a special program to grant 20,000 work permissions for it specialists from non-eu-countries. facing a tremendous shortage of staff the heads of some big companies have been demanding less restrictions for hiring foreign work force on a globalized labour market. for the last few weeks the german ''green card'' led to heavy debates, which were turning some political assumptions upside down. after almost 25 years of brainwashing and beating into the people's heads: ''The boat is full'' and ''immigration=0'', from one day to the other the german public had to realize, that the opposite is true: employers of all lines pled for a liberalization of the labour market and against legal restrictions for asylum seekers and migrants; on the other side, the heads of the unions and the christian democrats were campaigning against any new form of immigration, oftenly compared with the acquisition of ''gastarbeiter'' in the sixties. very close to the fascist slogan: ''jobs for germans first!'' and entering a new level of racist propaganda the cdu of north-rine westfalia called for: ''children instead of indians (kinder statt inder)''. last thursday the federal government passed two decrees offering a limited work permission and license to stay for foreign IT specialists. it is very interesting to see the attempt to ''rescue the german it sector'' against the background of another issue: the ongoing negotiations about reparations for forced and slave labour during german fascism. i am currently collecting some texts and i would be very interested in any further informations from other countries. i heard about some parallel debates in the us, and especially among unionists. thanks a lot! /fls

----

URL(http://www.bundesregierung.de)

Frequently asked questions and answers regarding the need for IT
specialists

question: Who will be allowed to come to Germany under the ''Green Card'' programme aimed at alleviating the current shortage of IT specialists? Will the issuance of entry visas be limited to persons from specific countries?

answer: Computer specialists with university and polytechnic qualifications, e.g. Bachelor's or Master's Degrees, will be allowed to work in Germany for a limited period of time. Additionally, specialists without a degree can also work here, provided the employer is willing to pay an (anual) salary of at least 100,000.- DM. This arrangement will apply to all job applicants from non-EU countries. There will be no limitation to persons from any specific countries.

question: How many IT specialists will be allowed to come to Germany?

answer: A total of 20,000 under an agreement reached between the German federal government and the industrial associations in the information and communications technology sector. After 10,000 work permits have been issued a monitoring procedure is to be carried out to determine if there is further need for computer specialists.

question: Is the period of employment in Germany to be subject to a time limit?

answer: Yes. Over the medium term the need for IT specialists is to be satisfied on the domestic labour market. The period of employment for top-level computer specialists from abroad is to be limited to three years with the possibility of getting an extension for up to two more years, i.e. for a maximum total of up to five years.

question: Will these people be allowed to bring their families with them to Germany?

answer: Yes. The IT specialists in question are to be granted residence permits. Under German law residence permits entitle holders (as long as all the other pertinent provisions of law governing foreign residents have been complied with) to bring their families to Germany right away or, failing that, to bring them to Germany at a later point in time.

question: What criteria will be used for placing applicants with companies? Are there any limits as to the number of computer specialists a given company will be allowed to take?

answer: Specific job offers will be registered by the Federal Employment Agency. After checking the job specifications, proposals will be made by the employment administration to the companies in question on the basis of applications received. There is no limitation on the number of computer specialists a company can hire.

question: Who should an employer wanting to hire foreign computer specialists turn to? How should an employer proceed who has suitable job applicants from abroad and would like to hire them? Are there any specific forms for this?

answer: Prospective employers can register job offers for computer specialists via the Internet hotline for IT professions created by the Federal Employment Agency, which has sole responsibility for the placement of foreign specialists. You will find the IT hotline through which you can directly post job offers at the following web site: URL(http://www.arbeitsagentur.de/). Here you will also find the name of the contact person at the Employment Office responsible for your specific IT needs. You will be able to discuss and, hopefully, resolve your personnel problems with this person.

question: Can foreign computer specialists already be hired under the ''Green Card'' programme or will it be necessary to wait until the requisite changes have been made in the laws governing the issuance of work and residence permits? Can preparations for hiring computer specialists be made now?

answer: The Federal Employment Agency is already able to say what its personnel requirements are. It is now checking to see whether there are any suitable applicants from Germany or other EU countries, since they would have to be given priority for job placement. If this is not the case, then the first step will have been taken towards opening up the procedure for allowing foreign computer specialists to take jobs in Germany.

question: Who can foreign IT specialists wanting to work in Germany turn to? How can they document their qualifications?

answer: Persons wanting to work in Germany should apply to the ''Zentralstelle fuer Arbeitsvermittlung'' (ZAV) in Bonn. It can be reached by e-mail at the following address: (Bonn-ZAV.IT-Experts@arbeitsamt.de) Mail in your request. ZAV will take it from there. ZAV will be responsible, for instance, for checking applicants' qualifications on the basis of certificates presented and, if necessary, their translations.

question: When will the first IT specialists from non-EU countries be allowed to come to Germany?

answer: The requisite legal regulations are scheduled to go into effect in the summer. After that it will be possible to start admitting job applicants.

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