インターネットはクラブではない

The Net Is Not the Club


Ulrich GutmaierがMP3などで起こっている新しい動きに対し、提言をnettimeで公開した。nettimeがは営利目的でない場合に転載自由ということであるから、ただし、この提言をどのように読むかは読者自身の判断に従って欲しい。また、データベース管理上問題になる文字は近い文字に変換し、URLはリンクするように設定した。WIPO(World Intellectual Property Organization)が2002年12月16日に、知的財産権に則ったデジタル経済についてのレポート「INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ON THE INTERNET」を公開した。詳細情報はURL(http://ecommerce.wipo.int/survey/)で知ることができる。AP(Associated Press)通信は2003年7月29日に、RIAAが、インターネット上で音楽を無料交換している米国内の利用者について900人以上を特定し、8月中にも著作権侵害で提訴する方針で、裁判所を通じてネット接続業者に利用者の情報を請求、提訴に不可欠な氏名や住所を1日に約70人ずつ得ていると報道した。米国議会のNorm Coleman上院議員はRIAAが発行依頼した、歴史に残るほど大量の前科者を一気に作りあげない異常に大量の召喚状には法的な懸念があるとして、2003年7月31日に調査を開始したことを発表し、RIAA に対して5項目に渡る質問状について、2003年8月14日までに書類を提出するよう求めた。詳細情報はURL(http://www.senate.gov/~coleman/newsroom/pressapp/record.cfm?id=207096)で知ることができる。SBC Communications社は2003年7月31日に、RIAAの違法ファイル交換の疑いがある加入者の情報開示を求める召喚状に対し、拒否する訴えを起こした。一番のテーマは、RIAA側のインターネット上のファイル・シェアリングに対するセキュリティについての考え方で、インターネットには基本的にファイル・シェアリングを自由に利用できる環境があり、そのインターネットを利用した誰でも自由に利用できる環境を利用して音楽を自由に交換することを違法といえるか、もし違法だとした場合に、RIAA側で音楽データに限ってファイル・シェアリングが利用できない環境を構築してきたかという点が問題になることだろう。もし、RIAAが勝手にインターネットの機能を制限し、インターネットの機能を利用したから犯罪者で、罰金を請求するというのであれば、RIAA側が法律を管理していることになりかねない。SCOグループ(SCO Group)は2007年7月14日に、米国連邦破産法第11条(チャプター・イレブン/Chapter 11 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code)に基づく資産保護を申請したことを発表した。詳細情報はURL(http://www.sco.com/chapter_11/)で知ることができる。

From: supertxt@zedat.fu-berlin.de
Date: Wed, 11 Oct 2000 00:23:28 +0200
To: nettime-l@bbs.thing.net
Subject: (nettime) The Net Is Not the Club
Sender: nettime-l-request@bbs.thing.net
Reply-To: supertxt@zedat.fu-berlin.de

[written for one bit louder URL(http://www.mi.cz/obl), updated for the reader of the URL(http://net.congestion.org) steaming media festival]

The Net Is Not the Club
Ulrich Gutmaier

MP3s evolution from pirate tech to the newest tool of capitalism gone cybernetic. Until recently, the Internet was the mythical space where everyone could store their utopias according to their desires. Anarchists on the left discovered a space free of control which they had thought was lost forever, whereas anarchists on the right (''libertarians'') described the net in short as the conception of a 'free' global market, providing flat hierarchies for producers and brokers of information. Any consequences of loading this new space with your favourite teleology were not to be feared. What seemed to be nothing more than a question of faith or an expression of a fundamental ideological schism has now become a genuine conflict about control of channels. This conflict paradoxically might shape an economy that incorporates features which you thought were revolutionary a minute ago. Since it is not only possible to receive text and images on the Internet, but also sound of an acceptable quality, global markets have become accessible. The Big Players in the entertainment industries are confronted with a fundamental problem of the digital age because of new sound formats like MP3: every copy of a sound file is as original as the original.

With MP3, audio-pirates have the ultimate tool in their hands whilst musicians can very easily launch their own independent labels. ''A band can become like a broadcaster'' declared Public Enemy rapper Chuck D. and thus re-formulated the observation that on the internet, in principal, all senders and recipients are alike. The idea of a Temporary Autonomous Internet Zone is just as real as its antithesis of a market place of the future.

With MP3 you can upload and download sound files on the Internet with a quality almost as good as a CD, whereas a CD-Rom Burner, like the good old cassette recorder, is only effective on a local basis. Digital sounds are not only easily copied, but can also be sent from A to B via the Internet with just a single click.

Until recently, the music industry disregarded the home computer as an intimate interface between producer and consumer, and used it only as a place to sell over-priced CDs by the dozen. At the same time, however, pop music was booming over the Internet in the form of MP3 files. Where the introduction of the Compact Disk with its low production costs promised fat profits for the supplier who positioned himself between the musicians and the consumer, MP3 reduced the business of mediation by large enterprises to a level where it became virtually obsolete. If sampling was the most significant cultural technique of the 90s, digital formats are revolutionizing distribution at this point in time.

Public Enemy, themselves sampling geniuses, are now fighting the power online with MP3. When Polygram in 1998 constantly postponed the launch of the remix-album ''Bring the Noise 2000'', Chuck D. simply put their tracks on the net by using MP3. By going to www.public.enemy.com you could tune in for free to exactly what the industry kept away from fans. In legal terms, Public Enemy thus have become pirates of their own work.

The Polygram tracks have disappeared from the Internet in the meantime, therefore allowing Public Enemy to live in the knowledge that they are standing at the foremost in the anti-corporate frontlines. Their single ''Swindler's Lust'' which was offered as a free download contains a tirade against the music industry: ''If you don't own the master, the master owns you.'' In the end, the legal characteristics of the formats prove to be more decisive than the technical, and the real exploiters of copyright are all too often not the artists themselves. For Chuck D. the representatives of the music industry are nothing more than pimps. But the new format however is the end of such exploitative behavior: ''MP3 is a technology they can't pimp,'' he says. (Despite the fact that Public Enemy have resorted to technology as a medium for and object of political discussion, they still seem to be the same guys: This is demonstrated by their more than questionable anti-Semitic undertones they use to establish the criticism of capitalism in tracks like Swindler's Lust.)

The 'pimps', however, do not stay passive despite the threats and are fighting back. In 1999, the German music industry had shut down hundreds of Internet sites, on which stolen copies in MP3 format had been offered. But it seems this was not about actual damage, but more a PR strategy. In the current struggle for the power of definition on the new phenomenon, the industry is using the discursive killer application of ''piracy''. If this concept does not work in dominating public debate and attacking MP3, a studio and a cool website should be enough to reach millions of consumers in the future - if you have the means to get access to people's attention, of course.

With the creation of the Secure Digital Music Initiative (SDMI), the powerful Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) set up their own security organisation to protect the copyrights on ''intellectual property'' of the multinationals. Where text, picture, video and sound converge in binary code, this category of property which carries the ornament of the ''intellectual'' finds a warm place to grow. ''Intellectual property'' (and this is not only reported by stock exchange rates) is a form of ownership which in the digital nutrient solution is apparently undergoing an explosive expansion. If the idea of ''intellectual property'' in view of cultural products may still appear to be illuminating, categorical doubts should be raised at the latest when a human gene is patented as an invention. Or at least when the whole gene pool equivalent to a few hundred square miles of the Amazon forest can be privatized under the banner of ''intellectual property''.

When the subject is copyright, you could ask yourself about which or whose legal rights we are talking. Does culture by definition not belong to all? For Richard Stallman, a free software pioneer, the music industry has long ago lost its status as a socially necessary structure. Whilst it used to be needed in order to make as many people as possible enjoy music, it has meanwhile become an organisation to which musicians and consumers are equally unimportant. Musicians, who struggle in vain for copyright protection, do not normally receive a penny until their products really start raking in the cash. The huge amounts spent on marketing and the creation of publicity are usually labeled as an 'advance' to the artists. They are the ones that bear the risk whilst the record companies stand on the safe side of the actual copyright owner.

According to Stallman, the free distribution of music on the Internet gains enough publicity for bands so that they can become less dependent on record companies. Similar to the question of collective heritage which is raised by the privatization of the genetic code of the rainforests, the debate on ownership and copyright should not focus on legal terms, but on an idea of social relevance. But the monopolists of the cultural industry are only interested in society in so far as it is a conglomerate of target groups. SDMI attempts to create a new protected, 'safe' format, in order to re-monopolize ways of doing business. This lead to heavy criticism of the SDMI from the Electronic Frontier Foundation, a lobby organisation of Internet companies with a libertarian hippie tradition. They believe that safe software in conjunction with new hardware aims at closed circulation, so that free copies of sound files would no longer be available. At the end of development we would see the concept that *every* copy of a sound file (which might not even be copyright protected, because you recorded it yourself) would be violating copyright. Reacting against such plans for closed circulation, the EFF formed the opinion that audio is a primary way of expression: 'Speech' is audio and without free audio there would be no freedom of speech, declared EFF-spokesperson John Perry Barlow.

Barlow should know. The guy who believes that music belongs to all of us is an ex-associate of the Californian hippie band and commune Grateful Dead, who always encouraged their fans to distribute bootlegs of their music. It never harmed the Grateful Dead, but eventually led Deadheads to form the community of the WELL, which was technically based on a Bulletin Board System and allowed mutual exchange of all kinds of information, thus establishing a gift economy which was influential for the shaping of early net culture. An economy which now seems to inspire new ways of making business by creating virtual communities. These communities serve as data pools, test beds of consumer behavior and market places for 'customised' commodities, such as Cycosmos for example.

In the middle of 1999, the RIAA had its first setback. They lost a trial in which they had attempted to prohibit the use of an MP3 Walkman. The product, sold under the name Rio, enabled the direct downloading of MP3s in a portable device. The RIAA had claimed to no avail that Rio was a ''digital audio recording device''. This kind of fight against new technologies is as old as the cultural industries themselves. If it was the printing of scores or gramophones or tape recorders - the music industry always claimed that new technologies would threaten their existence. But in the end every technical progress was successfully incorporated into the structures of Big Business. If closed circulation can not be implemented on the level of technology, it surely will serve as a model for creating closed environments of consumer communities.

After the introduction of the cassette recorder, the music industry pointed the moral finger at the widespread use of such dangerous reproduction devices. In the early 1980s they printed the warning 'Home taping is killing music' on the inner sleeves of their records. Then, Punk replied. Independent labels were founded, own slogans printed: ''Home taping is killing the music industry, keep up the good work!'' At the beginning of 2000, you can replace 'home taping' by 'MP3'. The option could be real, again. But more likely is the outcome of MP3 as the industry's own new killer app, because it is forcing the industry to upgrade their marketing techniques.

As it was the case with independent production being neutralized by semi-autonomous sub-labels created and owned by the multinationals in the 1980s (the economic undercurrent of the shift from Punk to New Wave on the surface), the industry now tries to use independent production and the users' needs for community to create new forms of digital distribution. These new models deliberately operate under the superstar level and focus on unknown bands and producers by giving them platforms to publish their material on the net. As a byproduct the A&R people of big companies have easy access to consumers' wishes, new trends and promising producers.

The idea of such a platform for young unknown artists was successfully implemented by URL(http://www.peoplesound.com) last year, at least in terms of user rates. The company was founded by former record company executives who raised 75 million dollars of venture capital. Peoplesound.com even pays an advance of 160 Euros to artists who manage to be accepted by the company's experts. If concepts like peoplesound.com turn out to be successful in actually creating revenue, this might bring about some change in the structure of the music industry. Smart start-ups will exploit the inability of the Big Players to react and adapt quickly to the new network environment, but business as a proliferation of now more or less 'customised' entertainment products is far from being threatened.

In upgrading to smarter forms of marketing we might see the rise of a cybernetic capitalism, where the techniques of tracking users' desires and the distribution of customised products will merge to an almost organic process of endless feedback. Digital pop culture will then be defined within the relationship between you and your net terminal only, as an infinite loop of interlinked suggestions, desires and info-objects. Thus MP3 is neither a problem for the cultural industries nor a vehicle of artistic freedom as such. The possibilities of MP3 for distributing your own, independent expressions are only technical. Real impact emerges from a social practice which is relatively immune to the more and more personalized marketing techniques developed by the industries of style. A practice which therefore is able to disappear beyond the horizon of attention.

The debate on the cultural and social implications of new technologies and formats like MP3 should not forget that there is an outside of the network system as well, which might be much more important for the creation of autonomous spaces. Thus the people of Berlin's independent techno label Elektro URL(http://www.elektro.fm) have made a good point in declaring that the net is an interesting space, but will never achieve the same social significance as the club: ''It's the game again. It's about accumulation and isolation. It's the opposite of a club. And we wished you rather did the opposite of the internet, but if you don't, enjoy it anyway.''

(parts of this text were translated from german by sheindal cohen)

# distributed via (nettime): no commercial use without permission
# (nettime) is a moderated mailing list for net criticism,
# collaborative text filtering and cultural politics of the nets
# more info: majordomo@bbs.thing.net and ''info nettime-l'' in the msg body
# archive: URL(http://www.nettime.org) contact: nettime@bbs.thing.net


1998〜2004年のオンラインとダウンロード・ミュージックの売り上げ予測
DMAT(Digital Music Access Technology)のトレードマーク
2000年9月28にSDMIが公開したオープン・レター
米国のパソコンユーザーとインターネット環境確保の比率
米国の音楽ダウンロードから見た2000年7/8月と2001年2月のインターネット比較
SIIAとKPMGが公開した、インターネット経由の著作権侵害調査報告
GAOが2001年11月30日に公開したLeading Commercial Practices for Outsourcing of Services
Cyber-Rights & Cyber-Libertiesの1997-2002ステートメント
サイバー刑事法研究会報告書の概要
欧州評議会サイバー犯罪条約
GAOが2002年4月16日に公開したInformation Security
GAOが2002年5月2日に公開したInformation Securityに関するレポートと宣言書
Robert F. DaceyのFederal Information Security Management Act of 2002コメント
IFPIの「Music Piracy Report 2002(音楽海賊版レポート2002)」
ipsos-reid.comが2002年6月12日に公開した音楽データ・ダウンロード調査報告
音楽データ・ダウンロード調査資料-1
音楽データ・ダウンロード調査資料-2
ロサンゼルスで活用されているコミュニティの開発に関する免除事項
ホワイトハウスが2002年9月18日に公開したcyberstrategy-draft
ホワイトハウスの2002年9月18日cyberstrategy-draftニュースリリース
WIPOが2002年12月16日に公開した「INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ON THE INTERNET」
UCLA Surveying the Digital Future 2000
UCLA Surveying the Digital Future 2001
UCLA Surveying the Digital Future 2002
RIAAのa corporate policy guide to copyright use and security on the internet
FDICによる情報セキュリティとリスクに関するレポート
Robert F. Daceyが訴えた法で定めた情報セキュリティ手段の必要性報告書
Nielsen//NetRatingsが2003年7月14日に公開した、P2P激減報道
Norm Coleman上院議員が2003年7月31日に発表したRIAA調査に関するリリース
The Pew Internet & American Life Projectが公開した米国での音楽ファイル・ダウンロード体験
The Pew Internet & American Life Projectの調査票
GAOが2006年7月28日に公開した、インターネットのDHSプランに関するレポート
GAOが2006年7月28日に公開した、David A. PownerとKeith Rhodesによる技術セキュリティに関する連邦政府上院委員会における証言
SCO Groupが2007年9月14日に公開した米国連邦破産法第11条申請リリース

MP3
Napster革命と法律
Napster
NapsterやGnutellaは「悪魔」で「救世主」?
音楽配信元年
音楽配信
音楽配信-2001年
音楽配信-2002年
音楽配信-2003年
音楽配信-2004年前半
音楽配信-2004年後半
音楽配信-2005年
音楽配信-2006年
音楽配信-2007年
紙ジャケCD
Gnutella
MP3関連のURL
Vorbis
音楽関連情報のURL
Beam it
CD-DA
WAVE
マルチメディアの標準化
デファクト・スタンダード
JPEG
MPEG1
MPEG2
MPEG4
H-320
H-323
H-324
インターネット
マルチメディア普及促進研究会
情報通信分野の標準化の動向に関する調査委員会
QuickTime MPEG Extension
MP@ML
MMTA
情報メディアの符号化
CD WAVE
SolidAudio
TwinVQ
著作権
日本音楽著作権協会
AHRA
Xing
FreeAmp
MultiMediaCard
ROS
MMC Reader/Writer
Pocket Digital Audio
FMS(Faith MIDI Station)
ネットワーク上音楽利用に関する著作物使用料
日本音楽著作権協会
著作物の法的集中管理
CDメディア新著作権法施行令
ネットワーク音楽著作権連絡協議会
デジタルカメラ
デジタルカメラの流れ/1993年まで
デジタルカメラの流れ/1994から1997年まで
デジタルカメラの流れ/1998年
デジタルカメラの流れ/1999年
デジタルカメラの流れ/2000年前半
デジタルカメラの流れ/2000年後半
デジタルカメラの流れ/2001年前半
デジタルカメラの流れ/2001年後半
デジタルカメラの流れ/2002年前半
デジタルカメラの流れ/2002年後半
デジタルカメラの流れ/2003年第1四半期
デジタルカメラの流れ/2003年第2四半期
デジタルカメラの流れ/2003年第3四半期
デジタルカメラの流れ/2003年第4四半期
デジタルカメラの流れ/2004年第1四半期
デジタルカメラの流れ/2004年第2四半期
デジタルカメラの流れ/2004年第3四半期
デジタルカメラの流れ/2004年第4四半期
ハードディスク
TypeII型HDのPCカード
Clik!
microdrive
ネットワーク上音楽利用に関する著作物使用料
SDMI
富山県立近代美術館裁判
MP4
a2b Music
Liqud Audio
ETS8
メディア・アーティスト協会
MMI(MultiMedia Identifier)
SDMI
ASCAP
インフォバインド
MagicGate
OpenMG
Super MagicGate
AV Photo & Media Finder
EMMS
MS Audio
DRM
RealJukebox
音楽産業廃棄物〜P-MODEL OR DIE
AOL
CAFE(the Consortium for Audio Free Expression)
面記録密度
EPR4ML
SF Trini Slider
デジタルメディア協会
RealSystem
Jornada
有線送信化権
複製権
版面権
MVP
IFPI
Bluetooth
diGO
RealJukebox
Music Messenger Service
MetaTrust
携帯電話での電子商取引
realdie.exe
ナンバー・ポータブル
電子書籍コンソーシアム
コンテンツ保護関連命令セット
デジタル音楽配信市場についての公聴会
デジ譜
Napster
DSS(Digital Speech Standard)
デジタル・クリエイターのバーチャル流通サービス
AAP
iPPee
QDX
ネットワーク環境を理解していない判決
ネットワーク環境を理解していない判決/2001年
ネットワーク環境を理解していない判決/2002年
ネットワーク環境を理解していない判決/2003年
ネットワーク環境を理解していない判決/2004年
ネットワーク環境を理解していない判決/2005年
ネットワーク環境を理解していない判決/2006年
ネットワーク環境を理解していない判決/2007年
Napsterが証明した音楽の未来
Napsterに代わるサービス
ネットワーク環境を理解していない判決
SpeechBalloon
Swapoo
MojoNation
サイファー・パンク
CSMセンター
Soundom
NMRCとJASRACの使用料規程規定の必要性
NMRCとJASRACの使用料規程
NMRCとJASRACの使用料合意リリース
デジタル・ロッカー
Na@h!
PKICC
シリコン・オーディオ
Supreme/D.R.I.V.E.
GnutellaDev
gPulp
SDMI Open Public Challenge
Scour.Net
PCIA(Personal Communications Industry Association)
CuteMX
Groove
Napster: a review
Farsite
OceanStore
Carracho
Gnuman
Media Tracker
分散システム/インターネット運用技術研究会
Virtual Supercomputer
Duet
音楽配信に関するJerome H. MolのOpen Letter
MOCA(Music Online Competition Act)
インターネットやコンピュータの歴史があるURL
Net Debut
Creative Commons
Peer-to-Peer Piracy Prevention Act
CTEA(Copyright Term Extension Act)
自由利用マーク
EYEマーク
GRid(Global Released identifier)
デジタル暗黒時代
デジタル・データ・ダウンロードの日
PeerGuardian
国籍に関するヨーロッパ条約
マルチメ ディア探索エンジン
SVP(Secure Video Processor)
意美音
消費者を保護するために必要な「現代の著作権法」